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Chicago Citation Guide


  • When quoting directly from a source in your text, the quotation should be surrounded by quotation marks if the quote is short.
  • If the quote is more than five lines long, the quote should be set in block quotation form.  See the video below to learn how to set up a block quote.


Paraphrasing is simply taking the information that you read and putting it in your own words.  If you use information from a source and word it exactly the same or nearly the same as the author of that work, you have committed plagerism.

  • What is paraphrasing?
    • Taking information you have read from a source and putting it into your own words.
  • Paraphrasing vs. Direct Quote
    • It is best to paraphrase your information as much as you can so that your paper is in your own words.  Too many direct quotes disrupts the flow of your paper and is distracting.  Also, by being able to put the information in your own words, shows that you have grasped the information from the original source. 
    • Even when you paraphrase information, you still need to cite where that information came from.  Failing to do so still constitutes plagiarism.
  • Good Paraphrase vs. Bad Paraphrase
    • Original source:
      • “Three years earlier, an anti-suffrage illustration predicted what was to come if women became voters. Employing the tried and true technique of portraying women voters as masculine, cartoonist C.W. Gustin played to the anxieties of those who feared a reversal of traditional gender roles. Gustin's illustration, "Election Day!," featured a severe, dour-looking woman, wearing masculine clothing, including spectacles, a tie, and a bowler, who had abandoned the sanctity of the home presumably to enter the public sphere. Her milquetoast husband, drawn smaller in scale, is left behind to tend two screaming infants.”[1]
      • Bad paraphrase:
        • Cartoonist C.W. Gustin portrayed women voters as masculine to play on the anxieties of those who feared a reversal of traditional gender roles. In his illustration “Election Day!,” a woman is featured wearing masculine clothing.
        • Simply changing the order of the words or just changing a few words is not paraphrasing, but plagiarism.
      • Good paraphrase:
        • Suffragist were often robbed of their femininity in their portrayals in political cartoons. One such example is found in C.W. Gustin’s illustration “Election Day!” where the female subject is assigned masculine features, clothing and actions.
        • Here, the idea of the author remains, but has been put into the own words of the writer.

[1] Ann Marie Nicolosi, “"the Most Beautiful Suffragette: Inez Milholland and the Political Currency of Beauty,” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 6, 3 (2007): 286–309.

In-Text Citations

In Chicago, in-text citations may be added at the bottom of the page in footnotes, or at the end of the paper in endnotes.  The video below shows how to add endnotes.  To use footnote style citations, the concept is the same, only select "insert footnote" instead of "endnote."  You may also quickly add a footnote by placing your cursor where you want the footnote inserted in your paper and holding down Ctrl+Alt+F.

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