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Respiratory Therapy

Citing References in Text

(Author, Year, Location)

(Abel, 2015, p. 10)

  • Start with the author's last name, or, if there isn't one, with the title. The in-text citation should lead directly to the citation in the Reference list.
  • The in-text citation immediately follows the idea (Abel, 2015) without waiting for the end of the sentence.
  • You might also use the author in your narrative, in which case you need not repeat it in the parentheses.  You will still have the date if you are paraphrasing or summarizing (2015) or date and page number for a direct quote (2005, p. 10).  According to Abel, there is no need to worry (2015, p. 10).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 174

(Author, Author, Author, Author, & Author, Date, Location)

Five authors or less should all be cited in the parentheses. They should all remain in the order that they appear on the title page.

“Test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received” (Hahn, Kropp, Kirschstein, Rucker & Muller-Hilke, 2017, p. 1).

If you cite it another time, you can use the first author, et al.

"Test anxiety is higher before oral than before written exams" (Hahn et al., 2017, p. 9).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 175

(Author, et al., date, location)

  • Six or more authors, use et al. even for the first in-text citation. Et al. means "and others."

(Franco, et al, 2015, p. 12). 

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 175

(Corporate Author, date, location)

  • Use the full name of the corporation as given on the title page.

(Pew Research Center, 2015, para. 4)

  • Corporate author commonly known by an acronym – Use the full name the first time but give the acronym in brackets

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2016). 

  • If you cite it another time, just use the acronym

(APA, 2016).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 176

(Title, date, location)

  • No author, use the first word or words in the citation. If it is an article title, use plain font.

(Bipolar, 2015, p. 17).  

  • If the source is a book and title is in italics, use italics here as well

(Merck, 2016, p. 342)

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 176-177

  • You could have several citations within the same sentence. 

Zika virus prevention may include vaccination (Lowy, 2015), pesticide use (Pepin & Penn, 2017), or elimination of standing water (Likas, et al, 2016).

  • Or you might have several references within the same parentheses.

Scientists agree that prevention is the key to eliminating the Zika virus (Likas, et al, 2016; Lowy, 2015; Pepin & Penn, 2017).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, pp. 175 & 177-178

(Name, personal communication, date)

  • Personal communication such as an interview, email, or telephone conversation will have an in-text citation but will not appear in the References list.  Only items that can be retrieved appear in the list.  Use the person's initials as well as surname.

 (J. Bond, personal communication, April 1, 2010).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 179

(as cited in Author, date, location)

  • Secondary citation is when you are quoting an author who quoted another source. 
  • It is always preferable to go directly to the original source when possible.  If you cannot locate the original source, give credit indirectly.  Your in-text citation will still lead to the appropriate item in the reference list. 

Ben Franklin wrote that “It was in everyone’s interest to be virtuous if he wished to be happy in this world,” (as cited in Dillon, 2009, p. 41). 

The Federal Bureau of Investigation reports that 23.5% of the 511 officers were killed while making an arrest (as cited in Evans, 2016, p. 79).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 178

  • Paraphrased – when you use your own words to express an author’s ideas, it is still best to give page numbers. If there are no page numbers, count the paragraphs and give the paragraph number. If there is a section title, give that as well.

The pay gap between men and women is less among ages 25-34 (Brown, A., 2017, para. 3)

  •  However, there are times when that is not feasible, such as when summarizing the author’s premise. 

The pay gap between men and women is is narrowing but still persists (Brown, A., 2017).

  • If you use the author's name in your narrative, start the in-text citation with the date.

According to Brown, the pay gap between men and women aged 25-34 has decreased to 10% (2017, para. 3).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 171

  • A direct quotation is when you use the exact words from your source.
  • If the quotation is fewer than forty words, put it in quotation marks. The in-text citation will follow the quotation marks even if it is in the middle of a sentence. 

The Mongols had the resources to conquer much of Europe and Asia because “they enjoyed an unprecedented, and yet-to-be-repeated, 15-year run of bountiful rains and mild weather” (Smith, 2014, para. 2), yielding an abundance of resources. 

  • If the quotation is forty words or more, format it as a block of text 1/2 inch in from the left margin. The in-text citation will come at the end of the block quote.

New research by tree-ring scientists from Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and West Virginia University may have uncovered the reason why an obscure band of nomadic Mongol horsemen was able to sweep through much of Asia in a few meteoric decades 800 years ago, conquering everything in their path: They enjoyed an unprecedented, and yet-to-be-repeated, 15-year run of bountiful rains and mild weather on the normally cold and arid steppes (Smith, 2014, para. 2).

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, pages 92 and 170-172.

(Author, year, location)

Location:

  • If there is a page number, use it.

(Torpey, 2015, p. 57)

  • No page number – Use a section name and count paragraphs.

(Torpey, 2017, Associate's degree, Table 1)

(Torpey, 2017, Bachelor's degree, para. 2)

  • No section name – count paragraphs.

(Torpey, 2017, para. 3)

For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, pp. 171-172.

 

 


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